Saturday, May 23, 2020

Limerence Was A Harsh Mistress.. 2The Philosopher Character

Limerence was a harsh mistress. 2The philosopher character Pangloss, an undying optimist, continually asserts this, that All is for the best in the best of all possible worlds. 2 * * * I still planned on telling you, you know, since I was riding on being the only person going to Penn from our year. But my luck never did run smooth, did it? You don’t really remember this, you say, but I do. It came time to decide on where to go to college, and you wanted my help. Man, did I love helping you. In hindsight, this was probably the first time that I thought with you in mind. I’d always done things for you, but really they were for me. As hard as it was, I forced myself to be as objective as possible, with your best interests in mind, not†¦show more content†¦It was still an active effort, though, stopping myself from going head over heels again, even after you broke up with your high school boyfriend that October. Of course, I reasoned with myself again, putting practicality over desire. And believe me, it was quite the damn 3 challenge. It didn’t help that you’d somehow become even more beautiful on both the outside and the inside. Excuses. Excuses. The thought was unavoidable, washing up on the shores of my mind whenever anyone asked me why I hadn’t gone for it yet. Whenever we spent time together. Whenever I thought of you at all. It began to live in my mind and have a mind of its own. You went abroad for the first time that summer. Three months in Spain. Just my luck. I missed you, for the first time as a friend. * * * Sophomore year came quickly, and I’d come to terms with my years-long depression by that fall. Freshman year was the first of many trainwrecks at Penn. Things at home became complicated, and I juggled home, classes, and my joke of a social life quietly. Being a reflective person had helped me for the longest time (as it is now, writing this), but it was my undoing. I had become a mirror trying to see my own reflection, so much in awe of the infinite that I felt infinitesimal. Things before college had always been a game—things to win, things to lose, nothing truly beyond the surface. But things were different now, as Drake said that year: We go 0 to 100...real quick. And hell, we were pushing 110.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Achievement Has No Colour in The Queen of Palmyra by...

â€Å"No one is born hating another person because of the color of his skin, or his background, or his religion. People must learn to hate, and if they can learn to hate, they can be taught to love, for love comes more naturally to the human heart than its opposite† -Nelson Mandela. In the novel The Queen of Palmyra by Minrose Gwin, racial discrimination is a prominent issue in the small town of Millwood, Mississippi. Florence Forrest is a young caucasian girl who witnesses the brutality of her time and the horrific acts of racism that plagued her community and her family. In a town overrun by white supremacists, Eva Johnson is a naive foreigner who is determined to make a living regardless of if she is welcome or not. Eva Johnson’s journey†¦show more content†¦The corruption of young and innocent minds in the novel The Queen of Palmyra by Minrose Gwin is an ongoing issue in the life of Florence Forrest. Florence is put face-to-face with blatant discrimination in her hometown. The same town that helped to shape her morals through the course of her life. As a young girl, Florence comes face to face with the racism of her times as the townspeople blatantly disrespect the African-American community with ethnic slurs, and an overall sense of prejudice. After Florence has one of her first experiences with this racism, her mother pulls her aside and explains that â€Å"we say ‘Negroes’ in this house, that’s what they like to be called. Negroes. Never coloured, do you hear me young lady?† (Gwin 43). The cultural beliefs in Millwood, Mississippi not only had a lasting impact on Florence’s mother, but as a role model for Florence inevitably shapes her beliefs and creates her sense of right and wrong. Throughout the course of her life and witnessing the discrimination plaguing her country, Florence comes to realize that her father was not just Nighthawk in the KKK, but also the murderer of Eva Johnson. After furt her investigating into the past, Florence is determined to find out the truth about Eva’s murder and her instinct leads her to believe that her that father’s lack of morality was what truly

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Intimately oppressed Essay Free Essays

string(75) " the work of constructing a life in the wilderness with their work forces\." Chapter 6: THE INTIMATELY OPPRESSED It is possible. reading standard histories. to bury half the population of the state. We will write a custom essay sample on Intimately oppressed Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now The adventurers were work forces. the landowners and merchandisers work forces. the political leaders work forces. the military figures work forces. The really invisibleness of adult females. the overlooking of adult females. is a mark of their submersed position. In this invisibleness they were something like black slaves ( and therefore break one’s back adult females faced a dual subjugation ) . The biological singularity of adult females. like skin colour and facial features for Negroes. became a footing for handling them as inferiors. True. with adult females. there was something more practically of import in their biological science than skin color-their place as childbearers-but this was non plenty to account for the general push backward for all of them in society. even those who did non bear kids. or those excessively immature or excessively old for that. It seems that their physical features became a convenience for work forces. who could utilize. feat. and cherish person who was at the same clip retainer. comrade. and bearer-teacher-warden of his kids. Societies based on private belongings and competition. in which monogamous households became practical units for work and socialisation. found it particularly utile to set up this particular position of adult females. something kindred to a house slave in the affair of familiarity and subjugation. and yet necessitating. because of that familiarity. and long-run connexion with kids. a particular patronization. which on juncture. particularly in the face of a show of strength. could steal over into intervention as an equal. An subjugation so private would turn out difficult to deracinate. Earlier societies-in America and elsewhere-in which belongings was held in common and households were extended and complicated. with aunts and uncles and grandmas and grampss all life together. seemed to handle adult females more as peers than did the white societies that subsequently overran them. conveying â€Å"civilization† and private belongings. In the Zuni folk of the Southwest. for case. extended families- big clans-were based on the adult female. whose hubby came to populate with her household. It was assumed that adult females owned the houses. and the Fieldss belonged to the kins. and the adult females had equal rights to what was produced. A adult female was more unafraid. because she was with her ain household. and she could disassociate the adult male when she wanted to. maintaining their belongings. Womans in the Plains Indian folk of the Midwest did non hold farming responsibilities but had a really of import topographic point in the folk as therapists. herb doctors. and sometimes holy people who gave advice. When bands lost their male leaders. adult females would go captains. Womans learned to hit little bows. and they carried knives. because among the Sioux a adult female was supposed to be able to support herself against onslaught. The pubescence ceremonial of the Sioux was such as to give pride to a immature Sioux maiden: â€Å"Walk the good route. my girl. and the American bison herds broad and dark as cloud shadows traveling over the prairie will follow you†¦ . Be duteous. respectful. gentle and modest. my girl. And proud walking. If the pride and the virtuousness of the adult females are lost. the spring will come but the American bison trails will turn to grass. Be strong. with the warm. strong bosom of the Earth. No people goes down until their adult females are weak and discredited. . . . It would be an hyperbole to state that adult females were treated every bit with work forces ; but they were treated with regard. and the communal nature of the society gave them a more of import topographic point. The conditions under which white colonists came to America created assorted state of affairss for adult females. Where the first colonies consisted about wholly of work forces. adult females were imported as childbearers and comrades. In 1619. the twelvemonth that the first black slaves came to Virginia. 90 adult females arrived at Jamestown on one ship: â€Å"Agreeable individuals. immature and incorrupt†¦ sold with their ain consent to colonists as married womans. the monetary value to be the cost of their ain transit. † Many adult females came in those early old ages as apprenticed servants- frequently teenaged girls-and lived lives non much different from slaves. except that the term of service had an terminal. They were to be obedient to Masterss and kept womans. The writers of Americans Working Women ( Baxandall. Gordon. and Reverby ) describe the state of affairs: â€Å"They were ill paid and frequently treated impolitely and harshly. deprived of good nutrient and privateness. Of class these awful conditions provoked opposition. Populating in separate households without much contact with others in their place. apprenticed retainers had one primary way of opposition unfastened to them: inactive opposition. seeking to make every bit small work as possible and to make troubles for their Masterss and kept womans. Of class the Masterss and kept womans did non construe it that manner. but saw the hard behaviour of their retainers as moroseness. indolence. malignity and stupidity. † For case. the GeneralCourt of Connecticut in 1645 ordered that a certain â€Å"Susan C. . for her rebellious passenger car toward her kept woman. to be sent to the house of rectification and be kept to hard labour and harsh diet. to be brought away the following talk twenty-four hours to be publically corrected. and so to be corrected hebdomadal. until order be given to the contrary. † Even free white adult females. non brought as retainers or slaves but as married womans of the early colonists. faced particular adversities. Eighteen married adult females came over on the Mayflower. Three were pregnant. and one of them gave birth to a dead kid before they landed. Childbirth and illness plagued the adult females ; by the spring. merely four of those 18 adult females were still alive. Those who lived. sharing the work of constructing a life in the wilderness with their work forces. You read "Intimately oppressed Essay" in category "Essay examples" were frequently given a particular regard because they were so severely needed. And when work forces died. adult females frequently took up the men’s work every bit good. All through the first century and more. adult females on the American frontier seemed close to equality with their work forces. But all adult females were burdened with thoughts carried over from England with thesettlers. influenced by Christian instructions. English jurisprudence was summarized in a papers of 1632 entitled â€Å"The Lawes Resolutions of Womens Rights† : In this consolidation which we call marriage is a locking together. It is true. that adult male and married woman are one individual. but understand in what mode. When a little Brooke or small river incorporateth with Rhodanus. Humber. or the Thames. the hapless rill looseth her name†¦ . A adult female every bit shortly as she is married is called covert †¦ that is. â€Å"veiled† ; as it were. clouded and overshadowed ; she hath lost her family name. I may more genuinely. farre off. say to a married adult female. Her new ego is her superior ; her comrade. her maestro. . . . Julia Spruill describes the woman’s legal state of affairs in the colonial period: †The husband’s control over the wife’s individual extended to the right of giving her castigation. . . . But he was non entitled to bring down lasting hurt or decease on his married woman. . . . † As for belongings:â€Å"Besides absolute ownership of his wife’s personal belongings and a life estate in her lands. the hubby took any other income that might be hers. He collected rewards earned by her labour. . . . Naturally it followed that the returns of the joint labour of hubby and married woman belonged to the hubby. † The father’s place in the household was expressed in The Spectator. an influential periodical in America and England: â€Å"Nothing is more satisfying to the head of adult male than power or rule ; and †¦ as I am the male parent of a household †¦ I am perpetually taken up in giving out orders. in ordering responsibilities. in hearing parties. in administrating justness. and in administering wagess and punishments†¦ . In short. sir. I look upon my household as a patriarchal sovereignty in which I am myself both king and priest. † No admiration that Puritan New England carried over this subjugation of adult females. At a test of a adult female for make bolding to kick about the work a carpenter had done for her. one of the powerful church male parents of Boston. the Reverend John Cotton. said: â€Å" . . . that the hubby should obey his married woman. and non the married woman the hubby. that is a false rule. For God hath put another jurisprudence upon adult females: married womans. be capable to your hubbies in all things. † A best-selling â€Å"pocket book. † published in London. was widely read in the American settlements in the 1700s. It was called Advice to a Daughter: You must first put it down for a Foundation in general. That there is Inequality in Sexes. and that for the better Economy of the World ; the Men. who were to be the Law-givers. had the larger portion of Reason bestow’d upon them ; by which means your Sexual activity is the better prepar’d for the Conformity that is necessary for the public presentation of those Duties which seem’d to be most properly assign’d to it†¦ . Your Sexual activity wanteth our Reason for your Conduct. and our Strength for your Protection: Ours wanteth your Gendeness to soften. and to entertain us. †¦ Against this powerful instruction. it is singular that adult females however rebelled. Women Rebels have ever faced particular disablements: they live under the day-to-day oculus of their maestro ; and they are stray one from the other in families. therefore losing the day-to-day chumminess which has given bosom to Rebels of other laden groups. Anne Hutchinson was a spiritual adult female. female parent of 13 kids. and knowing about mending with herbs. She defied the church male parents in the early old ages of the Massachusetts Bay Colony by take a firm standing that she. and other ordinary people. could construe the Bible for themselves. A good talker. she held meetings to which more and more adult females came ( and even a few work forces ) . and shortly groups of 60 or more were garnering at her place in Boston to listen to her unfavorable judgments of local curates. John Winthrop. the governor. described her as â€Å"a adult female of a haughty and ferocious passenger car. of a agile humor and active spirit. and a really voluble lingua. more bold than a adult male. though in apprehension and opinion. inferior to many adult females. † Anne Hutchinson was put on test twice: by the church for unorthodoxy. and by the authorities for disputing their authorization. At her civil test she was pregnant and ill. but they did non let her to sit down until she was close to prostration. At her spiritual test she was interrogated for hebdomads. and once more she was ill. but challenged her inquirers with adept cognition O f the Bible and singular fluency. When eventually she repented in composing. they were non satisfied. They said: â€Å"Her penitence is non in her visage. † She was banished from the settlement. and when she left for Rhode Island in 1638. 35 households followed her. Then she went to the shores of Long Island. where Indians who had been defrauded of their land thought she was one of their enemies ; they killed her and her household. Twenty old ages subsequently. the one individual back in Massachusetts Bay who had spoken up for her during her test. Mary Dyer. was hanged by the authorities of the settlement. along with two other Religious society of friendss. for â€Å"rebellion. sedition. and assumptive push outing themselves. † It remained rare for adult females to take part openly in public personal businesss. although on the southern and western frontiers conditions made this on occasion possible. Julia Spruill found in Georgia’s early records the narrative of Mary Musgrove Mathews. girl of an Indian female parent and an English male parent. who could talk the Creek linguistic communication and became an advisor on Indian personal businesss to Governor James Oglethorpe of Georgia. Spruill finds that as the communities became more settled. adult females were thrust back further from public life and seemed to act more trepidly than earlier. One request: â€Å"It is non the state of our sex to ground profoundly upon the policy of the order. † During the Revolution. nevertheless. Spruill studies. the necessities of war brought adult females out into public personal businesss. Women formed loyal groups. carried out anti-British actions. wrote articles for independency. They were active in the run against the British tea revenue enhancement. which made tea monetary values unacceptably high. They organized Daughters of Liberty groups. boycotting British goods. pressing adult females to do their ain apparels and purchase merely American-made things. In 1777 there was a women’s opposite number to the Boston lea Party-a â€Å"coffee party. † described by Abigail Adams in a missive to her hubby John: One eminent. wealthy. ungenerous merchandiser ( who is a unmarried man ) had a hogshead of java in his shop. which he refused to sell the commission under six shillings per lb. A figure of females. some say a 100. some say more. assembled with a cart and short pantss. marched down to the warehouse. and demanded the keys. which he refused to present. Upon which one of them seized him by his cervix and tossed him into the cart. Upon his happening no one-fourth. he delivered the keys when they tipped up the cart and discharged him ; so opened the warehouse. hoisted out the java themselves. set it into the short pantss and drove off. †¦ A big multitude of work forces stood amazed. soundless witnesss of the whole dealing. It has been pointed out by adult females historiographers late that the parts of propertyless adult females in the American Revolution have been largely ignored. unlike the genteel married womans of the leaders ( Dolly Madison. Martha Washington. Abigail Adams ) . Margaret Corbin. called â€Å"Dirty Kate. † Deborah Sampson Garnet. and â€Å"Molly Pitcher† were unsmooth. low-class adult females. prettified into ladies by historiographers. When women’s rightist urges are recorded. they are. about ever. the Hagiographas of privileged adult females who had some position from which to talk freely. more chance to compose and hold their Hagiographas recorded. Abigail Adams. even before the Declaration of Independence. in March of 1776. wrote to her hubby: †¦ in the new codification of Torahs which I suppose it will be necessary for you to do. I desire you would retrieve the ladies. and be more generous to them than your ascendants. Do non set such limitless power in the custodies of hubbies. Remember. all work forces would be autocrats if they could. If peculiar attention and attending are non paid to the ladies. we are determined to agitate a rebellion. and will non keep ourselves jump to obey the Torahs in which we have no voice of representation. However. Jefferson underscored his phrase â€Å"all work forces are created equal† by his statement that American adult females would be â€Å"too wise to purse their brows with political relations. † And after the Revolution. none of the new province fundamental laws granted adult females the right to vote. except for New Jersey. and that province rescinded the right in 1807. New York’s fundamental law specifically disfranchised adult females by utilizing the word â€Å"male. † While possibly 90 per centum of the white male population were literate around 1750. merely 40 per centum of the adult females were. Propertyless adult females had small agencies of pass oning. and no agencies of entering whatever sentiments of defiance they may hold felt at their subordination. Not merely were they bearing kids in great Numberss. under great adversities. but they were working in the place. Around the clip of the Declaration of Independence. four 1000 adult females and kids in Philadelphia were whirling at place for local workss under the â€Å"putting out† system. Womans besides were tradesmans and hosts and engaged in many trades. They were bakers. tinworkers. beer makers. sixpences. rope-makers. lumbermans. pressmans. undertakers. woodsmans. stay-makers. and more. Ideas of female equality were in the air during and after the Revolution. Tom Paine spoke out for the equal rights of adult females. And the pioneering book of Mary Wollstonecraft in England. A Vindication of the Rights of Women. was reprinted in the United States shortly after the Revolutionary War. Wollstonecraft was reacting to the English conservative and opposition of the Gallic Revolution. Edmund Burke. who had written in his Contemplations on the Revolution in France that â€Å"a adult female is but an animate being. and an carnal non of the highest order. † She wrote: I wish to carry adult females to endeavour to get strength. both of head and organic structure. and to convert them that soft phrases. susceptibleness of bosom. daintiness of sentiment. and polish of gustatory sensation. are about synonymous with names of failing. and that those existences who are merely the objects of commiseration and that sort of love. . . will shortly go objects of disdain. . . . I wish to demo that the first object of commendable aspiration is to obtain a character as a human being. regardless of the differentiation of sex. Between the American Revolution and the Civil War. so many elements of American society were changing-the growing of population. the motion due west. the development of the mill system. enlargement of political rights for white work forces. educational growing to fit the new economic needs-that alterations were bound to take topographic point in the state of affairs of adult females. In preindustrial America. the practical demand for adult females in a frontier society had produced some step of equality ; adult females worked at of import jobs-publishing newspapers. pull offing tanneries. maintaining tap houses. prosecuting in skilled work. In certain professions. like obstetrics. they had a monopoly. Nancy Cott Tells of a grandma. Martha Moore Ballard. on a farm in Maine in 1795. who â€Å"baked and brewed. pickled and preserved. spun and sewed. made soap and dipped candles† and who. in 25 old ages as a accoucheuse. delivered more than a 1000 babes. Since instruction took topographic point inside the household. adult females had a particular function at that place. There was complex motion in different waies. Now. adult females were being pulled out of the house and into industrial life. while at the same clip there was force per unit area for adult females to remain place where they were more easy controlled. The outside universe. interrupting into the solid cell of the place. created frights and tensenesss in the dominant male universe. and brought away ideological controls to replace the relaxation household controls: the thought of â€Å"the woman’s topographic point. † promulgated by work forces. was accepted by many adult females. As the economic system developed. work forces dominated as mechanics and shopkeepers. and aggressiveness became more and more defined as a male trait. Women. possibly exactly because more of them were traveling into the unsafe universe outside. were told to be inactive. Clothing manners developed- for the rich and in-between category of class. but. as ever. there was the bullying of manner even for the poor-in which the weight of women’s apparels. girdles and half-slips. emphasized female separation from the universe of activity. It became of import to develop a set of thoughts. taught in church. in school. and in the household. to maintain adult females in their topographic point even as that topographic point became more and more unsettled. Barbara Welter ( Dimity Convictions ) has shown how powerful was the â€Å"cult of true womanhood† in the old ages after 1820. The adult female was expected to be pious. A adult male composing in The Ladies’ Repository: â€Å"Religion is precisely what a adult female needs. for it gives her that self-respect that bests suits her dependance. † Mrs. John Sandford. in her book Woman. in Her Social and Domestic Character. said: â€Å"Religion is merely what adult female needs. Without it she is of all time ungratified or unhappy. † When Amelia Bloomer in 1851 suggested in her feminist publication that adult females wear a sort of short skirt and bloomerss. to free themselves from the burdens of traditional frock. this was attacked in the popular women’s literature. One narrative has a miss look up toing the â€Å"bloomer† costume. but her professor admonishes her that they are â€Å"only one of the many manifestations of that wild spirit of socialism and agricultural radicalism which is at present so rife in our land. † In The Young Lady’s Book of 1830: â€Å" . . . in whatever state of affairs of life a adult female is placed from her cradle to her grave. a spirit of obeisance and entry. bendability of pique. and humbleness of head. are required from her. † And one adult female wrote. in 1850. in the book Greenwood Leaves: â€Å"True feminine mastermind is of all time timid. doubtful. and clingingly dependent ; a ageless childhood. † Another book. Remembrances of a Southern Matron: â€Å"If any wont of his irritated me. I spoke of it one time or twice. calmly. so bore it softly. † Giving adult females â€Å"Rules for Conjugal and Domestic Happiness. † one book ended with: â€Å"Do non anticipate excessively much. † The woman’s occupation was to maintain the place cheerful. keep faith. he nurse. cook. cleansing agent. dressmaker. flower organizer. A adult female shouldn’t read excessively much. and certain books should be avoided. When Harriet Martineau. a reformist of the 1830s. wrote Society in America. one referee suggested it he kept off from adult females: â€Å"Such reading will faze them for their true station and chases. and they will throw the universe back once more into confusion. † Womans were besides urged. particularly since they had the occupation of educating kids. to he loyal. One women’s magazine offered a award to the adult female who wrote the best essay on â€Å"How May an American Woman Best Show Her Patriotism. † It was in the 1820s and 1830s. Nancy Cott tells us ( The Bonds of Womanhood ) . that there was an spring of novels. verse forms. essays. discourses. and manuals on the household. kids. and women’s function. The universe exterior was going harder. more commercial. more demanding. In a sense. the place carried a yearning for some Utopian yesteryear. some safety from immediateness. Possibly it made credence of the new economic system easier to be able to see it as lone portion of life. with the place a oasis. In 1819. one pious married woman wrote: â€Å" . . . the air of the universe is toxicant. You must transport an counterpoison with you. or the infection will turn out foetal. † All this was non. as Cott points out. to dispute the universe of commercialism. industry. competition. capitalist economy. but to do it more toothsome. The cult of domesticity for the adult female was a manner of lenifying her with a philosophy of â€Å"separate but equal†-giving her work every bit every bit of import as the man’s. but separate and different. Inside that â€Å"equality† there was the fact that the adult female did non take her mate. and one time her matrimony took topographic point. her life was determined. One miss wrote in 1791: â€Å"The dice is about to be cast which will likely find the hereafter felicity or wretchedness of my life†¦ . I have ever anticipated the event with a grade of sedateness about equal to that which will end my present being. † Marriage enchained. and kids doubled the ironss. One adult female. composing in 1813: â€Å"The thought of shortly giving birth to my 3rd kid and the attendant responsibilities I shall he called to dispatch hurts me so I feel as if I should drop. † This despondence was lightened by the idea that something of import was given the adult female to make: to leave to her kids the moral values of self- restraint and promotion through single excellence instead than common action. The new political orientation worked ; it helped to bring forth the stableness needed by a turning economic system. But its really being showed that other currents were at work. non easy contained. And giving the adult female her sphere created the possibility that she might utilize that infinite. that clip. to fix for another sort of life. The â€Å"cult of true womanhood† could non wholly wipe out what was seeable as grounds of woman’s low-level position: she could non vote. could non have belongings ; when she did work. her rewards were one-fourth to one-half what work forces earned in the same occupation. Womans were excluded from the professions of jurisprudence and medical specialty. from colleges. from the ministry. Puting all adult females into the same category-giving them all the same domestic domain to cultivate- created a categorization ( by sex ) which blurred the lines of category. as Nancy Cott points out. However. forces were at work to maintain raising the issue of category. Samuel Slater had introduced industrial whirling machinery in New England in 1789. and now there was a demand for immature girls-literally. â€Å"spinsters†-to work the spinning machinery in mills. In 1814. the power loom was introduced in Waltham. Massachusetts. and now all the operations needed to turn cotton fiber into fabric were under one roof. The new fabric mills fleetly multiplied. with adult females 80 to 90 per centum of their operatives-most of these adult females between 15 and 30. Some of the earliest industrial work stoppages took topographic point in these fabric Millss in the 1830s. Eleanor Flexner ( A Century of Struggle ) gives figures that suggest why: women’s day-to-day mean net incomes in 1836 were less than 371/2 cents. and 1000s earned 25 cents a twenty-four hours. working 12 to sixteen hours a twenty-four hours. In Pawtucket. Rhode Island. in 1824. came the first known work stoppage of adult females factory workers ; 202 adult females joined work forces in protesting a pay cut and longer hours. but they met individually. Four old ages subsequently. adult females in Dover. New Hampshire. struck entirely. And in Lowell. Massachusetts. in 1834. when a immature adult female was fired from her occupation. other misss left their looms. one of them so mounting the town pump and devising. harmonizing to a newspaper study. â€Å"a flaring Mary Wollstonecraft address on the rights of adult females and the wickednesss of the ‘moneyed aristocracyà ¢â‚¬â„¢ which produced a powerful consequence on her hearers and they determined to hold their ain manner. if they died for it. † A diary kept by an unsympathetic occupant of Chicopee. Massachusetts. recorded an event of May 2. 1843: Great turnout among the misss. . . after breakfast this forenoon a emanation preceded by a painted window drape for a streamer went round the square. the figure 16. They shortly came by once more. . . so numbered forty-four. They marched around a piece and so dispersed. After dinner they sallied Forth to the figure of 42 and marched around to Cabot. †¦ They marched around the streets making themselves no recognition. †¦ There were work stoppages in assorted metropoliss in the 1840s. more hawkish than those early New England â€Å"turnouts. † but largely unsuccessful. A sequence of work stoppages in the Allegheny Millss near Pittsburgh demanded a shorter working day. Several times in those work stoppages. adult females armed with sticks and rocks broke through the wooden Gatess of a fabric factory and stopped the looms. Catharine Beecher. a adult female reformist of the clip. wrote about the mill system: Let me now present the facts I learned by observation or enquiry on the topographic point. I was at that place in mid- winter. and every forenoon I was awakened at five. by the bells naming to labour. The clip allowed for dressing and breakfast was so short. as many told me. that both were performed hastily. and so the work at the factory was begun by lamplight. and prosecuted without remittal boulder clay 12. and chiefly in a standing place. Then half an hr merely allowed for dinner. from which the clip for traveling and returning was deducted. Then back to the Millss. to work till seven o’clock. †¦ it must be remembered that all the hours of labour are spent in suites where oil lamps. togedier with from 40 to 80 individuals. are wash uping the healthful rule of the air †¦ and where the air is loaded with atoms of cotton thrown from 1000s of cards. spindles. and looms. Middle-class adult females. barred from higher instruction. began to monopolise the profession of primary-school instruction. As instructors. they read more. communicated more. and instruction itself became insurgent of old ways of believing. They began to compose for magazines and newspapers. and started some ladies’ publications. Literacy among adult females doubled between 1780 and 1840. Women became wellness reformists. They formed motions against dual criterions in sexual behaviour and the victimization of cocottes. They joined in spiritual organisations. Some of the most powerful of them joined the antislavery motion. So. by the clip a clear women’s rightist motion emerged in the 1840s. adult females had become adept o rganizers. fomenters. talkers. When Emma Willard addressed the New York legislative assembly in 1819 on the topic of instruction for adult females. she was beliing the statement made merely the twelvemonth before by Thomas Jefferson ( in a missive ) in which he suggested adult females should non read novels â€Å"as a mass of trash† with few exclusions. â€Å"For a similar ground. excessively. much poesy should non be indulged. † Female instruction should concentrate. he said. on â€Å"ornaments excessively. and the amusements of life. . . . These. for a female. are dancing. pulling. and music. † Emma Willard told the legislative assembly that the instruction of adult females â€Å"has been excessively entirely directed to suit them for exposing to advantage the appeals of young person and beauty. † The job. she said. was that â€Å"the gustatory sensation of work forces. whatever it might go on to be. has been made into a criterion for the formation of the female character. † Reason and faith teach us. she said. that â€Å"we excessively are primary beings †¦ non the orbiters of work forces. † In 1821. Willard founded the Troy Female Seminary. the first recognized establishment for the instruction of misss. She wrote subsequently of how she disquieted people by learning her pupils about the human organic structure: Mothers sing a category at the Seminary in the early mid-thirtiess were so shocked at the sight of a student pulling a bosom. arterias and venas on a chalkboard to explicate the circulation of the blood. that they left the room in shame and discouragement. To continue the modestness of the misss. and save them excessively frequent agitation. heavy paper was pasted over the pages in their text editions which depicted the human organic structure. Women struggled to come in the all-male professional schools. Dr. Harriot Hunt. a adult female doctor who began to pattern in 1835. was twice refused admittance to Harvard Medical School. But she carried on her pattern. largely among adult females and kids. She believed strongly in diet. exercising. hygiene. and mental wellness. She organized a Ladies Physiological Society in 1843 where she gave monthly negotiations. She remained individual. withstanding convention here excessively. Elizabeth Blackwell got her medical grade in 1849. holding overcome many slights before being admitted to Geneva College. She so set up the New York Dispensary for Poor Women and Children â€Å"to give to hapless adult females an chance of confer withing doctors of their ain sex. † In her first Annual Report. she wrote: My first medical audience was a funny experience. In a terrible instance of pneumonia in an aged lady I called in audience a kindhearted doctor of high standing. . . . This gentleman. after seeing the patient. went with me into the parlor. There he began to walk about the room in some agitation. crying. â€Å"A most extraordinary instance! Such a one ne’er happened to me before ; I truly do non cognize what to make! † I listened in surprise and much perplexity. as it was a clear instance of pneumonia and of no unusual grade of danger. until at last I discovered that his perplexity related to me. non to the patient. and to the properness of confer withing with a lady doctor! Oberlin College pioneered in the admittance of adult females. But the first miss admitted to the divinity school at that place. Antoinette Brown. who graduated in 1850. found that her name was left off the category list. With Lucy Stone. Oberlin found a formidable obstructionist. She was active in the peace society and in antislavery work. taught colored pupils. and organized a debating nine for misss. She was chosen to compose the beginning reference. so was told it would hold to be read by a adult male. She refused to compose it. Margaret Fuller was possibly the most formidable rational among the women’s rightists. Her get downing point. in Woman in the Nineteenth Century. was the apprehension that â€Å"there exists in the heads of work forces a tone of experiencing toward adult female as toward slaves†¦ . † She continued: â€Å"We would hold every arbitrary harasser thrown down. We would hold every way unfastened to Woman every bit freely as to Man. † And: â€Å"What adult female needs is non as a adult female to move or govern. but as a nature to turn. as an mind to spot. as a psyche to populate freely and unimpeded. . . . † In the class of this work. events were set in gesture that carried the motion of adult females for their ain equality rushing alongside the motion against bondage. In 1840. a World Anti-Slavery Society Convention met in London. After a ferocious statement. it was voted to except adult females. but it was agreed they could go to meetings in a curtained enclosure. The adult females sat in soundless protest in the gallery. and William Lloyd Garrison. one emancipationist who had fought for the rights of adult females. Saturday with them. It was at that clip that Elizabeth Cady Stanton met Lucretia Mott and others. and began to put the programs that led to the first Women’s Rights Convention in history. It was held at Seneca Falls. New York. where Elizabeth Cady Stanton lived as a female parent. a homemaker. full of bitterness at her status. declaring: â€Å"A adult female is a cipher. A married woman is everything. † She wrote subsequently: I now to the full understood the practical troubles most adult females had to postulate with in the stray family. and the impossibleness of woman’s best development if. in contact. the main portion of her life. with retainers and kids. . . . The general discontent I felt with woman’s part as married woman. female parent. housekeeper. doctor. and religious usher. the helter-skelter status into which everything fell without her changeless supervising. and the jaded. dying expression of the bulk of adult females. impressed me with the strong feeling that some active steps should he taken to rectify the wrongs of society in general and of adult females in peculiar. My experiences at the World Anti-Slavery Convention. all I had read of the legal position of adult females. and the subjugation I saw everyplace. together swept across my soul†¦ . I could non see what to make or where to begin-my merely idea was a public meeting for protest and treatment. An proclamation was put in the Seneca County Courier naming for a meeting to discourse the â€Å"rights of woman† the 19th and 20th of July. Three hundred adult females and some work forces came. A Declaration of Principles was signed at the terminal of the meeting by 68 adult females and 32 work forces. It made usage of the linguistic communication and beat of the Declaration of Independence: When in the class of human events. it becomes necessary for one part of the household of adult male to presume among the people of the Earth a place different from that they have hitherto occupied †¦We clasp these truths to be axiomatic: that all work forces and adult females are created equal ; that they are endowed by their Godhead with certain unalienable rights ; dial among these are life. autonomy and the chase of felicity. . . . The history of world is a history of perennial hurts and trespasss on the portion of adult male toward adult female. holding in direct object the constitution of an absolute dictatorship over her. To turn out this. allow facts be submitted to a blunt universe. . . . Then came the list of grudges: no right to vote. no right to her rewards or to belongings. no rights in divorce instances. no equal chance in employment. no entryway to colleges. stoping with: â€Å"He had endeavored. in every manner that he could. to destruct her assurance in her ain powers. to decrease her self-respect and to do her willing to take a dependent and low life†¦ . † And so a series of declarations. including: â€Å"That all Torahs which prevent adult female from busying such a station in society as her scruples shall order. or which place her in a place inferior to that of adult male. are contrary to the great principle of nature. and hence of no force or authorization. † A series of women’s conventions in assorted parts of the state followed the 1 at Seneca Falls. At one of these. in 1851. an aged black adult female. who had been born a slave in New York. tall. thin. have oning a grey frock and white turban. listened to some male curates who had been ruling the treatment. This was Sojourner Truth. She rose to her pess and joined the outrage of her race to the outrage of her sex: That adult male over at that place says that adult female needs to be helped into passenger cars and lifted over ditches. . . . Cipher of all time helps me into passenger cars. or over mud-puddles or gives me any best topographic point. And a’nt I a adult female? Expression at my arm! I have ploughed. and planted. and gathered into barns. and no adult male could head me! And a’nt I a adult female? I would work every bit much and eat every bit much as a adult male. when I could acquire it. and bear the cilium every bit good. And a’nt I a adult female?I have borne 13 kids and seen mutton quads most all sold off to bondage. and when I cried out with my mother’s heartache. none but Jesus heard me! And a’nt I a adult female? Therefore were adult females get downing to defy. in the 1830s and 1840s and 1850s. the effort to maintain them in their â€Å"woman’s sphere. † They were taking portion in all kinds of motions. for captives. for the insane. for black slaves. and besides for all adult females. How to cite Intimately oppressed Essay, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Variable Cost and Unit Selling Price Essay Example For Students

Variable Cost and Unit Selling Price Essay Cost behavior refers to the manner in which: *a. a cost changes as the related activity changes b. a cost is allocated to products c. a cost is used in setting selling prices d. a cost is estimated 3370. The three most common cost behavior classifications are: a. variable costs, product costs, and sunk costs *b. fixed costs, variable costs, and mixed costs c. variable costs, period costs, and differential costs d. variable costs, sunk costs, and opportunity costs 3371. Costs that remain constant in total dollar amount as the level of activity changes are called: *a. ixed costs b. mixed costs c. pportunity costs d. variable costs 3372. Which of the graphs in Figure 20-1 illustrates the behavior ofa total fixed cost? a. Graph 2 b. Graph 3 c. Graph 4 *d. Graph 1 3373. Which of the graphs in Figure 20-1 illustrates the behavior ofa total variable cost? *b. Graph 3 3374. Which of the graphs in Figure 20-1 illustrates the nature ofa mixed cost? *a. Graph 2 d. Graph 1 3375. Which of the following costs is an example of a cost that remains the same in total as the number of units produced changes? a. Direct labor *b. Salary of a factory supervisor c. Units of production depreciation on factory equipment . Direct materials 3376. Which of the following describes the behavior of the fixed cost per unit? *a. Decreases with increasing production b. Decreases with decreasing production c. Remains constant with changes in production d. Increases with increasing production 3377. Which of the following activity bases would be the most appropriate for food costs of a hospital? a. Number of cooks scheduled to work b. Number of x-rays taken *c. Number of patients who stay in the hospital d. Number of scheduled surgeries 3378. Which of the following activity bases would be the most appropriate for asoline costs of a delivery service, such as United Postal Service? a. Number of trucks employed *b. Number of miles driven c. Number of trucks in service 3379. Most operating decisions of management focus on a narrow range of activity called the: *a. relevant range of production b. strategic level of production c. optimal level of production d. tactical operating level of production 3380. Costs that vary in total in direct proportion to changes in an activity level are called: a. fixed costs b. sunk costs *c. ariable costs d. differential costs 3381. Which of the following is an example of a cost that varies in total as the number f units produced changes? a. Salary of a production supervisor *b. Direct materials cost c. Property taxes on factory buildings d. Straight-line depreciation on factory equipment 3382. Which of the following is NOT an example of a cost that varies in total as the number of units produced changes? a. Electricity per KWH to operate factory equipment b. Direct materials cost *c. Straight-line depreciation on factory equipment d. Wages of assembly worker 3383. Which of the following is NOT an example of a cost that varies in total as the *c. Insurance premiums on factory building 3384. Which of the following describes the behavior of the variable cost per unit? a. Varies in increasing proportion with changes in the activity level b. Varies in decreasing proportion with changes in the activity level *c. Remains constant with changes in the activity level d. Varies in direct proportion with the activity level 3385. The graph of a variable cost when plotted against its related activity base appears as a: a. circle b. rectangle *c. straight line d. urved line .u8a822a174d07382abf3d7541c4198b76 , .u8a822a174d07382abf3d7541c4198b76 .postImageUrl , .u8a822a174d07382abf3d7541c4198b76 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u8a822a174d07382abf3d7541c4198b76 , .u8a822a174d07382abf3d7541c4198b76:hover , .u8a822a174d07382abf3d7541c4198b76:visited , .u8a822a174d07382abf3d7541c4198b76:active { border:0!important; } .u8a822a174d07382abf3d7541c4198b76 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u8a822a174d07382abf3d7541c4198b76 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u8a822a174d07382abf3d7541c4198b76:active , .u8a822a174d07382abf3d7541c4198b76:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u8a822a174d07382abf3d7541c4198b76 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u8a822a174d07382abf3d7541c4198b76 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u8a822a174d07382abf3d7541c4198b76 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u8a822a174d07382abf3d7541c4198b76 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u8a822a174d07382abf3d7541c4198b76:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u8a822a174d07382abf3d7541c4198b76 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u8a822a174d07382abf3d7541c4198b76 .u8a822a174d07382abf3d7541c4198b76-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u8a822a174d07382abf3d7541c4198b76:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Homosexuality (526 words) Essay 3386. A cost that has characteristics of both a variable cost and a fixed cost is called a. variable/fixed cost *b. ixed cost c. discretionary cost d. sunk cost 3387. Which of the following costs is a mixed cost? a. Salary of a factory supervisor b. Electricity costs of $2 per kilowatt-hour *c. Rental costs of $5,000 per month plus $. 30 per machine hour of use d. Straight- line depreciation on factory equipment 3388. For purposes of analysis, mixed costs are generally: a. classified as fixed costs b. classified as variable costs c. classified as period costs *d. eparated into their variable and fixed cost components the year, 3,500 desks were manufactured at a total cost of $84,400. In its slowest onth, the company made 1,100 desks at a cost of $46,000. Using the high-low method of cost estimation, total fixed costs are: a. $56,000 *b. $28,400 c. $17,600 d. cannot be determined from the data given 3390. Given the following cost and activity observations for Bounty Companys utilities, use the high-low method to calculate Bounty variable utilities costs per machine hour. Cost Machine Hours March $3,100 1 5,000 April 2,700 10,ooo May 2,900 12,000 June 3,600 18,000 a. $10. 00 b. $. 67 *d. $. 11 ; 3391. Given the following cost and activity observations for Smithson Companys tilities, use the high-low method to calculate Smithsons fixed costs per month. Round variable cost per unit to two decimal places in your calculations. January $52,200 20,000 February 75,000 29,000 57,000 22,000 64,000 24,500 *a. $1,600 b. $2,530 c. $22,800 d. $50,600 ; 3392. Given the following cost and activity observations for Taco Companys utilities, $800 10,400 July 7,200 August 9,500 b. $. 60 *c. $. 40 d. $. 52 3393. Manley Co. manufactures office furniture. During the most productive month of the year, 4,500 desks were manufactured at a total cost of $86,625. In its slowest onth, the company made 1,800 desks at a cost of $49,500. Using the high-low a. $61875 b. $33875 3394. Which of the following statements is true regarding fixed and variable costs? a. Both costs are constant when considered on a per unit basis. b. Both costs are constant when considered on a total basis. *c. Fixed costs are constant in total, and variable costs are constant per unit. d. Variable costs are constant in total, and fixed costs vary in total. 3395. As production increases, what would you expect to happen to fixed cost per unit? a. Increase *b. Decrease c. Remain the same d. Either increase or decrease, depending on the variable costs 3396. Knowing how costs behave is useful to management for all the following reasons except for *a. predicting customer demand. b. predicting profits as sales and production volumes change. c. estimating costs. d. changing an existing product production. 3397. The manufacturing cost of Prancer Industries for three months of the year are provided below: Total Cost Production $ 60,700 1,200 units 80,920 1 ,800 100,300 a. $32. 30 per unit and $77,520 respectively. *b. $33 per unit and $21,100 respectively. c. 32 per unit and $76,800 respectively. . $32. 30 per unit and $22,780 respectively. 3398. As production increases, what should happen to the variable costs per unit? *a. Stay the same. b. Increase. c. Decrease. d. Either increase or decrease, depending on the fixed costs. 3399. Cool-It Company manufactures and sells commercial air conditioners. Because of current trends, it expects to increase sales by 15 percent next year. If this expected level of production and sales occurs and plant expansion is not needed, how should this increase affect next years total amounts for the following costs. .u5cfc91df3a9d475a74357528ba4115c3 , .u5cfc91df3a9d475a74357528ba4115c3 .postImageUrl , .u5cfc91df3a9d475a74357528ba4115c3 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u5cfc91df3a9d475a74357528ba4115c3 , .u5cfc91df3a9d475a74357528ba4115c3:hover , .u5cfc91df3a9d475a74357528ba4115c3:visited , .u5cfc91df3a9d475a74357528ba4115c3:active { border:0!important; } .u5cfc91df3a9d475a74357528ba4115c3 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u5cfc91df3a9d475a74357528ba4115c3 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u5cfc91df3a9d475a74357528ba4115c3:active , .u5cfc91df3a9d475a74357528ba4115c3:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u5cfc91df3a9d475a74357528ba4115c3 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u5cfc91df3a9d475a74357528ba4115c3 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u5cfc91df3a9d475a74357528ba4115c3 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u5cfc91df3a9d475a74357528ba4115c3 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u5cfc91df3a9d475a74357528ba4115c3:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u5cfc91df3a9d475a74357528ba4115c3 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u5cfc91df3a9d475a74357528ba4115c3 .u5cfc91df3a9d475a74357528ba4115c3-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u5cfc91df3a9d475a74357528ba4115c3:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: -The Lotos-Eaters By Tennyson EssayVariable Costs increase o change decrease Fixed Costs Mixed Costs increase *b. increase   c. increase d. 3400. Given the following costs and activities for Downing Company electrical costs, use the high-low method to calculate Downings variable electrical costs per machine hour. Costs $11,700 $13,200 17,500 $11,400 14,500 a. $2. 08 b. $6. 00 *c. $0. 60 d. $1. 20 ; 3401. The systematic examination of the relationships among selling prices, volume of sales and production, costs, and profits is termed: a. contribution margin analysis *b. cost-volume-profit analysis c. budgetary analysis d. gross profit analysis ; 3402. In cost-volume-profit analysis, all costs are classified into the following two categories: a. mixed costs and variable costs b. sunk costs and fixed costs c. discretionary costs and sunk costs *d. variable costs and fixed costs ; 3403. Contribution margin is: *a. the excess of sales revenue over variable cost b. another term for volume in the cost-volume-profit analysis c. profit d. the same as sales revenue ; 3404. The contribution margin ratio is: a. the same as the variable cost ratio b. the same as profit c. the portion of equity contributed by the stockholders *d. the same as the profit-volume ratio

Tuesday, March 24, 2020

Personality Assessment Instruments Comparison free essay sample

Personality assessment instruments continue to be widely uses by the public and widely examined by the public. Since the early 20th century a number of personality instruments have been very useful in classifying personality traits, while other test instruments have shown to be antiquated. The Myer-Briggs, Apperception test and self-help books all have confidence that they can deliver a concrete view on differences in personalities. They allow you to know an individuals personality type along with an examination into how these different assessments may be of importance to the everyday person. As the degree to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure, validity is a difficult property to evaluate in a test. Consider tests of intelligence. Many people are skeptical of the results of these tests. Some people are concerned that the tests measure only book learning and do not test common sense (Anastasi, 1988). Other people feel that intelligence tests have cultural, racial, and gender biases. We will write a custom essay sample on Personality Assessment Instruments Comparison or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Therefore, to conclude that a test is a valid measure of intelligence, it must be shown that the test measures intelligence independent of the test subjects education, culture, race, and sex. The Validity of MBTI- Many studies over the years have proven the validity of the MBTI instrument in three categories: (1) the validity of the four separate preference scales; (2) the validity of the four preference pairs as dichotomies; and (3) the validity of whole types or particular combinations of preferences. The MBTI is a very popular test of personality. Each year millions of copies of the test are administered in the workplace, schools, churches, community groups, management workshops, and counseling centers. Many people see the MBTI as an invaluable tool that helps them understand their own behavior as well as the behavior of others. In spite of the popularity of the MBTI, there are many problems with its use. There is a large body of research that suggests that the claims made about the MBTI cannot be supported. While the MBTI appears to measure something, many psychologists are not convinced that any significant conclusions can be based on the test. The validity scores of a test estimate how well the test measures what it purports to measure. Personality assessment tests usually produce validity scores for each of the individual traits measured. When scores on the traits of a test compare well with scores on similar traits on other tests, the test is said to have good concurrent validity. Validity coefficients were computed on each of the four INSIGHT Inventory traits by comparing these to the traits measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), Sixteen Personality factors (16PF), and Holland Self-Directed Search (SDS). This data comprises a large section of the INSIGHT Technical Manual and users are encouraged to review those pages and tables (Anastasi, 1988). Very strong support for the validity of the traits measured by the INSIGHT Inventory was garnered (Anastasi, 1988). Comprehensiveness of the MBTI prompts us of the truth that all people are not alike, but then claims that every person can be fit neatly into one of 16 boxes. The MBTI attempts to force the intricacies of human personality into a synthetic and restraining classification scheme. The focus on the typing of people reduces the attention paid to the unique qualities and potential of each individual. Because of its apparent simplicity, the MBTI may be misused unintentionally by some people. A manager, for example, may come to believe that only certain personality types are appropriate for specific jobs. In terms of applicability, the Myers-Briggs instrument reports preferences, not skills, or accomplishments. Type theory provides a framework for predicting and interpreting data on motivation, aptitude, achievement, communication styles, and career patterns. The Myers-Briggs instrument could be used to help counsel participants who are deciding what career path might best fit their personality. The Myers-Briggs instrument is also used in trying to match personalities compatible for marriage, teamwork, and can be helpful in understanding group dynamics. Some individuals use the results of the Myers-Briggs test for professional and personal development (Anastasi, 1988). As the modern world moves toward a more global society, interest in multicultural use of the MBTI has exploded. Both Jung and Myers felt that psychological type is universal. If so, the implications of promoting understanding between cultures and increasing appreciation of diversity within a culture are significant. Consulting Psychological Press listed 14 commercial translations and 15 translations being tested as research instruments in 1996 (Butcher amp; Rouse, 1996). One important problem in developing translations is separation of underlying type patterns from culturally influenced behaviors. When it is used with appropriate explanation of psychological type, significant success has been reported by practitioners using the MBTI in a wide variety of cultures both in developing nations and industrialized societies. Reliability and validity studies to date indicate significant reliability when used with English-speaking populations or those with a reasonable command of English, and that the MBTI does indicate respondents’ Jungian type preferences in the cultures in which it is being used. Research issues include the investigation of whole type multicultural as well as individual preferences, and the dynamics of interaction of individuals and their culture (Butcher amp; Rouse, 1996). The MBTI is an important tool in investigating health, stress, and coping variables, and in using knowledge thus gained to tailor prevention and treatment programs to the person’s type. Shelton reviews research using the MBTI to study physiological differences according to type, to relate the incidence of several disease processes and type, to relate stress and coping to type, and to study the outcome of a stress reduction treatment program. The third edition of the MBTI Manual (1998/2003) includes a section on the implications of research on health, stress, and coping with stress in its chapter on the use of type in counseling and psychotherapy. While type has not been assessed in all cultural societies, it has been surveyed in about 30 countries on all continents, some with more than one culture. So far, the studies have suggested the following: All type preferences (E-I, S-N, T-F, and J-P) appear in all cultures studied to date. People in different cultures report that the descriptions of the individual preferences make sense to them however, they find value and usefulness in using type concepts in various ways, for example, to improve interactions and communication between diverse individuals and within groups. The Myers-Briggs instrument is available in about 20 foreign languages. Alternative versions of the Myers-Briggs instrument has been scientifically customized and validated for other languages and cultures for which a straight translation of English language terms would yield inaccurate results (Anastasi, 1988). The Myers-Briggs instrument still has several languages missing from its repertoire and not all cultures have an understanding of a multiple choice questionnaire. The Thematic Apperception Test, or TAT, is a projective measure intended to evaluate a persons patterns of thought, attitudes, observational capacity, and emotional responses to ambiguous test materials (Locraft amp; Teglasi, 1997). In the case of the TAT, the ambiguous materials consist of a set of cards that portray human figures in a variety of settings and situations. The subject is asked to tell the examiner a story about each card that includes the following elements: the event shown in the picture; what has led up to it; what the characters in the picture are feeling and thinking; and the outcome of the event. The creators of the TAT, Christina Morgan, and Henry Murray, applied storytelling using pictured scenes to reveal motives, intentions, and expectations (Locraft amp; Teglasi, 1997).

Friday, March 6, 2020

Learn the Italian Word Quando

Learn the Italian Word Quando The English translations of quando are:  when,  once, and after. If you want to be able to ask â€Å"when† something is happening in Italian, you’re going to have to get cozy with the word â€Å"quando†. Below are a handful of examples to help you become familiar with how and â€Å"when† to use â€Å"quando†. Esempi Quando parti per l’Italia? - When do you leave for Italy? (informal)Quando torni dall’Italia? - When do you return from Italy? (informal)Quando inizia il film? - When does the movie start?Quando à ¨ il compleanno di Giulia? - When is Giulia’s birthday?Chiamami quando torni. - Call me when you return. (informal)Arrivo da te quando ho finito di lavorare/col lavoro. - I’ll come over to your house once I’m done with work. (informal)Ci vediamo stasera quando arrivi. - We’ll see each other tonight after you arrive. (informal) Common Expressions Di quando in quando - SometimesQuando vuoi - Whenever you wantQuando mai? - Since when? Pop Culture Reference Quando, quando, quando - Tony Renis

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Weekly progress report Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Weekly progress report - Coursework Example I also spent another 2 days in reading the research paper written by Ibrahim Kushchu, International University of Japan (p. 2- 12). The research paper offers a brief insight over the e-government and m-government along with stating the overall significance and applications of m-government in different countries. This reading will help me in the literature review especially in stating the shift from e-government to m-government and highlighting the importance and relevance of m-government in the social environment. I have not read the entire paper as I just wanted to have an overview of m-government that will be further strengthened as I proceed further with the literature review part I spent 2 more days in searching more articles over the internet on m-government and went through the article published on the website of Mobile Government Consortium International offering an understanding over the m-government In the coming week, I will write the research aim and objectives along with stating the research questions. This will take 2-3 hours of time based on the understanding of the research topic. At the same time, I will go through the research paper based on the adoption of m-government services in developing countries published by International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Research. This will take 2 days of time and will help me in strengthening my knowledge over the importance and relevance of m-government. This will also help me in the literature review chapter I will also search few articles on importance and introduction of m-government in Oman. This will take maximum 2 days of time including searching and a bit of reading. This will help me in forming a perspective over the pros and cons and acceptance and resistance for m-government in the context of Oman. If time permits, I will also form an understanding over the actual applications and advantages of m-government over the e-government in the context of